docs: fix a bunch of typos
[mesa.git] / docs / meson.rst
1 Compilation and Installation Using Meson
2 ========================================
3
4 1. Introduction
5 ---------------
6
7 For general information about Meson see the `Meson
8 website <https://mesonbuild.com/>`__.
9
10 **Mesa's Meson build system is generally considered stable and ready for
11 production.**
12
13 .. note::
14
15 Mesa requires Meson >= 0.52.0 to build.
16
17 If your distribution doesn't have something recent enough in its
18 repositories, you can `try the methods suggested here
19 <https://mesonbuild.com/Getting-meson.html>`__ to install the
20 current version of Meson.
21
22 The Meson build of Mesa is tested on Linux, macOS, Windows, Cygwin,
23 Haiku, FreeBSD, DragonflyBSD, NetBSD, and should work on OpenBSD.
24
25 Unix-like OSes
26 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
27
28 If Meson is not already installed on your system, you can typically
29 install it with your package installer. For example:
30
31 .. code-block:: console
32
33 sudo apt-get install meson # Ubuntu
34
35 or
36
37 .. code-block:: console
38
39 sudo dnf install meson # Fedora
40
41 Some older versions of meson do not check that they are too old and will
42 error out in odd ways.
43
44 You'll also need `Ninja <https://ninja-build.org/>`__. If it's not
45 already installed, use apt-get or dnf to install the *ninja-build*
46 package.
47
48 Windows
49 ^^^^^^^
50
51 You will need to install python3 and meson as a module using pip. This
52 is because we use python for generating code, and rely on external
53 modules (mako). You also need pkg-config (a hard dependency of meson),
54 flex, and bison. The easiest way to install everything you need is with
55 `chocolatey <https://chocolatey.org/>`__.
56
57 .. code-block:: console
58
59 choco install python3 winflexbison pkgconfiglite
60
61 You can even use chocolatey to install mingw and ninja (ninja can be
62 used with MSVC as well)
63
64 .. code-block:: console
65
66 choco install ninja mingw
67
68 Then install meson using pip
69
70 .. code-block:: console
71
72 py -3 -m pip install meson mako
73
74 You may need to add the python3 scripts directory to your path for
75 meson.
76
77 2. Basic Usage
78 --------------
79
80 The meson program is used to configure the source directory and
81 generates either a ninja build file or Visual Studio® build files. The
82 latter must be enabled via the ``--backend`` switch, as ninja is the
83 default backend on all operating systems.
84
85 Meson only supports out-of-tree builds, and must be passed a directory
86 to put built and generated sources into. We'll call that directory
87 "build" here. It's recommended to create a `separate build
88 directory <https://mesonbuild.com/Using-multiple-build-directories.html>`__
89 for each configuration you might want to use.
90
91 Basic configuration is done with:
92
93 .. code-block:: console
94
95 meson build/
96
97 This will create the build directory. If any dependencies are missing,
98 you can install them, or try to remove the dependency with a Meson
99 configuration option (see below).
100
101 To review the options which Meson chose, run:
102
103 .. code-block:: console
104
105 meson configure build/
106
107 Meson does not currently support listing configuration options before
108 running "meson build/" but this feature is being discussed upstream. For
109 now, we have a ``bin/meson-options.py`` script that prints the options
110 for you. If that script doesn't work for some reason, you can always
111 look in the
112 `meson_options.txt <https://gitlab.freedesktop.org/mesa/mesa/-/blob/master/meson_options.txt>`__
113 file at the root of the project.
114
115 With additional arguments ``meson configure`` can be used to change
116 options for a previously configured build directory. All options passed
117 to this command are in the form ``-D "option"="value"``. For example:
118
119 .. code-block:: console
120
121 meson configure build/ -Dprefix=/tmp/install -Dglx=true
122
123 Note that options taking lists (such as ``platforms``) are `a bit more
124 complicated <https://mesonbuild.com/Build-options.html#using-build-options>`__,
125 but the simplest form compatible with Mesa options is to use a comma to
126 separate values (``-D platforms=drm,wayland``) and brackets to represent
127 an empty list (``-D platforms=[]``).
128
129 Once you've run the initial ``meson`` command successfully you can use
130 your configured backend to build the project in your build directory:
131
132 .. code-block:: console
133
134 ninja -C build/
135
136 The next step is to install the Mesa libraries, drivers, etc. This also
137 finishes up some final steps of the build process (such as creating
138 symbolic links for drivers). To install:
139
140 .. code-block:: console
141
142 ninja -C build/ install
143
144 Windows specific instructions
145 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
146
147 On windows you have a couple of choices for compilers. If you installed
148 mingw with chocolatey and want to use ninja you should be able to open
149 any shell and follow the instructions above. If you want to you MSVC,
150 clang-cl, or ICL (the Intel Compiler), read on.
151
152 Both ICL and MSVC come with shell environments, the easiest way to use
153 meson with these it to open a shell. For clang-cl you will need to open
154 an MSVC shell, and then override the compilers, either using a `native
155 file <https://mesonbuild.com/Native-environments.html>`__, or with the
156 CC and CXX environment variables.
157
158 All of these compilers are tested and work with ninja, but if you want
159 visual studio integration or you just like msbuild, passing
160 ``--backend=vs`` to meson will generate a visual studio solution. If you
161 want to use ICL or clang-cl with the vsbackend you will need meson
162 0.52.0 or greater. Older versions always use the microsoft compiler.
163
164 3. Advanced Usage
165 -----------------
166
167 Installation Location
168 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
169
170 Meson default to installing libGL.so in your system's main lib/
171 directory and DRI drivers to a dri/ subdirectory.
172
173 Developers will often want to install Mesa to a testing directory rather
174 than the system library directory. This can be done with the --prefix
175 option. For example:
176
177 .. code-block:: console
178
179 meson --prefix="${PWD}/build/install" build/
180
181 will put the final libraries and drivers into the build/install/
182 directory. Then you can set LD_LIBRARY_PATH and LIBGL_DRIVERS_PATH to
183 that location to run/test the driver.
184
185 Meson also honors ``DESTDIR`` for installs.
186
187 Compiler Options
188 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
189
190 Meson supports the common CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS, etc. environment variables
191 but their use is discouraged because of the many caveats in using them.
192
193 Instead, it is recommended to use ``-D${lang}_args`` and
194 ``-D${lang}_link_args``. Among the benefits of these options is that
195 they are guaranteed to persist across rebuilds and reconfigurations.
196
197 This example sets -fmax-errors for compiling C sources and -DMAGIC=123
198 for C++ sources:
199
200 .. code-block:: console
201
202 meson builddir/ -Dc_args=-fmax-errors=10 -Dcpp_args=-DMAGIC=123
203
204 Compiler Specification
205 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
206
207 Meson supports the standard CC and CXX environment variables for
208 changing the default compiler. Note that Meson does not allow changing
209 the compilers in a configured builddir so you will need to create a new
210 build dir for a different compiler.
211
212 This is an example of specifying the clang compilers and cleaning the
213 build directory before reconfiguring with an extra C option:
214
215 .. code-block:: console
216
217 CC=clang CXX=clang++ meson build-clang
218 ninja -C build-clang
219 ninja -C build-clang clean
220 meson configure build -Dc_args="-Wno-typedef-redefinition"
221 ninja -C build-clang
222
223 The default compilers depends on your operating system. Meson supports
224 most of the popular compilers, a complete list is available
225 `here <https://mesonbuild.com/Reference-tables.html#compiler-ids>`__.
226
227 LLVM
228 ^^^^
229
230 Meson includes upstream logic to wrap llvm-config using its standard
231 dependency interface.
232
233 As of meson 0.51.0 meson can use cmake to find llvm (the cmake finder
234 was added in meson 0.49.0, but LLVM cannot be found until 0.51) Due to
235 the way LLVM implements its cmake finder it will only find static
236 libraries, it will never find libllvm.so. There is also a
237 ``-Dcmake_module_path`` option in this meson version, which points to
238 the root of an alternative installation (the prefix). For example:
239
240 .. code-block:: console
241
242 meson builddir -Dcmake_module_path=/home/user/mycmake/prefix
243
244 As of meson 0.49.0 meson also has the concept of a `"native
245 file" <https://mesonbuild.com/Native-environments.html>`__, these files
246 provide information about the native build environment (as opposed to a
247 cross build environment). They are ini formatted and can override where
248 to find llvm-config:
249
250 custom-llvm.ini
251
252 ::
253
254 [binaries]
255 llvm-config = '/usr/local/bin/llvm/llvm-config'
256
257 Then configure meson:
258
259 .. code-block:: console
260
261 meson builddir/ --native-file custom-llvm.ini
262
263 Meson < 0.49 doesn't support native files, so to specify a custom
264 ``llvm-config`` you need to modify your ``$PATH`` (or ``%PATH%`` on
265 windows), which will be searched for ``llvm-config``,
266 ``llvm-config$version``, and ``llvm-config-$version``:
267
268 .. code-block:: console
269
270 PATH=/path/to/folder/with/llvm-config:$PATH meson build
271
272 For selecting llvm-config for cross compiling a `"cross
273 file" <https://mesonbuild.com/Cross-compilation.html#defining-the-environment>`__
274 should be used. It uses the same format as the native file above:
275
276 cross-llvm.ini
277
278 ::
279
280 [binaries]
281 ...
282 llvm-config = '/usr/lib/llvm-config-32'
283 cmake = '/usr/bin/cmake-for-my-arch'
284
285 Obviously, only cmake or llvm-config is required.
286
287 Then configure meson:
288
289 .. code-block:: console
290
291 meson builddir/ --cross-file cross-llvm.ini
292
293 See the :ref:`Cross Compilation <cross-compilation>` section for more
294 information.
295
296 On windows (and in other cases), using llvm-config or cmake may be
297 either undesirable or impossible. Meson's solution for this is a
298 `wrap <https://mesonbuild.com/Wrap-dependency-system-manual.html>`__, in
299 this case a "binary wrap". Follow the steps below:
300
301 - Install the binaries and headers into the
302 ``$mesa_src/subprojects/llvm``
303 - Add a meson build.build file to that directory (more on that later)
304
305 The wrap file must define the following:
306
307 - ``dep_llvm``: a ``declare_dependency()`` object with
308 include_directories, dependencies, and version set)
309
310 It may also define:
311
312 - ``irbuilder_h``: a ``files()`` object pointing to llvm/IR/IRBuilder.h
313 (this is required for SWR)
314 - ``has_rtti``: a ``bool`` that declares whether LLVM was built with
315 RTTI. Defaults to true
316
317 such a meson.build file might look like:
318
319 ::
320
321 project('llvm', ['cpp'])
322
323 cpp = meson.get_compiler('cpp')
324
325 _deps = []
326 _search = join_paths(meson.current_source_dir(), 'lib')
327 foreach d : ['libLLVMCodeGen', 'libLLVMScalarOpts', 'libLLVMAnalysis',
328 'libLLVMTransformUtils', 'libLLVMCore', 'libLLVMX86CodeGen',
329 'libLLVMSelectionDAG', 'libLLVMipo', 'libLLVMAsmPrinter',
330 'libLLVMInstCombine', 'libLLVMInstrumentation', 'libLLVMMC',
331 'libLLVMGlobalISel', 'libLLVMObjectYAML', 'libLLVMDebugInfoPDB',
332 'libLLVMVectorize', 'libLLVMPasses', 'libLLVMSupport',
333 'libLLVMLTO', 'libLLVMObject', 'libLLVMDebugInfoCodeView',
334 'libLLVMDebugInfoDWARF', 'libLLVMOrcJIT', 'libLLVMProfileData',
335 'libLLVMObjCARCOpts', 'libLLVMBitReader', 'libLLVMCoroutines',
336 'libLLVMBitWriter', 'libLLVMRuntimeDyld', 'libLLVMMIRParser',
337 'libLLVMX86Desc', 'libLLVMAsmParser', 'libLLVMTableGen',
338 'libLLVMFuzzMutate', 'libLLVMLinker', 'libLLVMMCParser',
339 'libLLVMExecutionEngine', 'libLLVMCoverage', 'libLLVMInterpreter',
340 'libLLVMTarget', 'libLLVMX86AsmParser', 'libLLVMSymbolize',
341 'libLLVMDebugInfoMSF', 'libLLVMMCJIT', 'libLLVMXRay',
342 'libLLVMX86AsmPrinter', 'libLLVMX86Disassembler',
343 'libLLVMMCDisassembler', 'libLLVMOption', 'libLLVMIRReader',
344 'libLLVMLibDriver', 'libLLVMDlltoolDriver', 'libLLVMDemangle',
345 'libLLVMBinaryFormat', 'libLLVMLineEditor',
346 'libLLVMWindowsManifest', 'libLLVMX86Info', 'libLLVMX86Utils']
347 _deps += cpp.find_library(d, dirs : _search)
348 endforeach
349
350 dep_llvm = declare_dependency(
351 include_directories : include_directories('include'),
352 dependencies : _deps,
353 version : '6.0.0',
354 )
355
356 has_rtti = false
357 irbuilder_h = files('include/llvm/IR/IRBuilder.h')
358
359 It is very important that version is defined and is accurate, if it is
360 not, workarounds for the wrong version of LLVM might be used resulting
361 in build failures.
362
363 ``PKG_CONFIG_PATH``
364 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
365
366 The ``pkg-config`` utility is a hard requirement for configuring and
367 building Mesa on Unix-like systems. It is used to search for external
368 libraries on the system. This environment variable is used to control
369 the search path for ``pkg-config``. For instance, setting
370 ``PKG_CONFIG_PATH=/usr/X11R6/lib/pkgconfig`` will search for package
371 metadata in ``/usr/X11R6`` before the standard directories.
372
373 Options
374 ^^^^^^^
375
376 One of the oddities of meson is that some options are different when
377 passed to the ``meson`` than to ``meson configure``. These options are
378 passed as --option=foo to ``meson``, but -Doption=foo to
379 ``meson configure``. Mesa defined options are always passed as
380 -Doption=foo.
381
382 For those coming from autotools be aware of the following:
383
384 ``--buildtype/-Dbuildtype``
385 This option will set the compiler debug/optimisation levels to aid
386 debugging the Mesa libraries.
387
388 Note that in meson this defaults to ``debugoptimized``, and not
389 setting it to ``release`` will yield non-optimal performance and
390 binary size. Not using ``debug`` may interfere with debugging as some
391 code and validation will be optimized away.
392
393 For those wishing to pass their own optimization flags, use the
394 ``plain`` buildtype, which causes meson to inject no additional
395 compiler arguments, only those in the C/CXXFLAGS and those that mesa
396 itself defines.
397
398 ``-Db_ndebug``
399 This option controls assertions in meson projects. When set to
400 ``false`` (the default) assertions are enabled, when set to true they
401 are disabled. This is unrelated to the ``buildtype``; setting the
402 latter to ``release`` will not turn off assertions.
403
404 .. _cross-compilation:
405
406 4. Cross-compilation and 32-bit builds
407 --------------------------------------
408
409 `Meson supports
410 cross-compilation <https://mesonbuild.com/Cross-compilation.html>`__ by
411 specifying a number of binary paths and settings in a file and passing
412 this file to ``meson`` or ``meson configure`` with the ``--cross-file``
413 parameter.
414
415 This file can live at any location, but you can use the bare filename
416 (without the folder path) if you put it in $XDG_DATA_HOME/meson/cross or
417 ~/.local/share/meson/cross
418
419 Below are a few example of cross files, but keep in mind that you will
420 likely have to alter them for your system.
421
422 Those running on ArchLinux can use the AUR-maintained packages for some
423 of those, as they'll have the right values for your system:
424
425 - `meson-cross-x86-linux-gnu <https://aur.archlinux.org/packages/meson-cross-x86-linux-gnu>`__
426 - `meson-cross-aarch64-linux-gnu <https://aur.archlinux.org/packages/meson-cross-aarch64-linux-gnu>`__
427
428 32-bit build on x86 linux:
429
430 ::
431
432 [binaries]
433 c = '/usr/bin/gcc'
434 cpp = '/usr/bin/g++'
435 ar = '/usr/bin/gcc-ar'
436 strip = '/usr/bin/strip'
437 pkgconfig = '/usr/bin/pkg-config-32'
438 llvm-config = '/usr/bin/llvm-config32'
439
440 [properties]
441 c_args = ['-m32']
442 c_link_args = ['-m32']
443 cpp_args = ['-m32']
444 cpp_link_args = ['-m32']
445
446 [host_machine]
447 system = 'linux'
448 cpu_family = 'x86'
449 cpu = 'i686'
450 endian = 'little'
451
452 64-bit build on ARM linux:
453
454 ::
455
456 [binaries]
457 c = '/usr/bin/aarch64-linux-gnu-gcc'
458 cpp = '/usr/bin/aarch64-linux-gnu-g++'
459 ar = '/usr/bin/aarch64-linux-gnu-gcc-ar'
460 strip = '/usr/bin/aarch64-linux-gnu-strip'
461 pkgconfig = '/usr/bin/aarch64-linux-gnu-pkg-config'
462 exe_wrapper = '/usr/bin/qemu-aarch64-static'
463
464 [host_machine]
465 system = 'linux'
466 cpu_family = 'aarch64'
467 cpu = 'aarch64'
468 endian = 'little'
469
470 64-bit build on x86 windows:
471
472 ::
473
474 [binaries]
475 c = '/usr/bin/x86_64-w64-mingw32-gcc'
476 cpp = '/usr/bin/x86_64-w64-mingw32-g++'
477 ar = '/usr/bin/x86_64-w64-mingw32-ar'
478 strip = '/usr/bin/x86_64-w64-mingw32-strip'
479 pkgconfig = '/usr/bin/x86_64-w64-mingw32-pkg-config'
480 exe_wrapper = 'wine'
481
482 [host_machine]
483 system = 'windows'
484 cpu_family = 'x86_64'
485 cpu = 'i686'
486 endian = 'little'